EXIT/SALIDA

Relationship between Gedymin, Grand Duke de Lithuanie and Andreas von Wernitz zu Salm-Kyrburg

 

 

 

Andreas von Wernitz zu Salm-Kyrburg, Herzog von Hornes is a descendant of the 18th generation of Gédymine, Grand Duke de Lithuanie

 

Total: 1,285 relationship links

 

 
  Gédymine, Grand Duke de Lithuanie ca 1260-1341
& Wida Rurikide +1344
 
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  Olgierd, Grand-duc de Lithuanie ca 1296-1377
&1346 Julienne de Tver ca 1325-1392
 
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  Wladyslaw II Jagiello, Roi de Pologne ca 1351-1434
&1422 Sophie d'Holszany, Princesse Lithuano-Russe ca 1405-1464
 
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  Kazimierz IV Jagiellonczyk, Roi de Pologne 1427-1492
&1454 Elisabeth von Habsburg (Elzbieta Rakuszanka), reine de Pologne 1436/1437-1505
 
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  Ladislas II Jagiellonczyk, König von Ungarn 1456-1516
&1502 Anne (Anna de Foix-Candale), Comtesse de Foix 1484-1506
    Barbara Jagiellonka, Królewna Polska 1478-1534
&1496 Georg, Herzog von Sachsen 1471-1539
    Zofia Jagiellonka, królewna polska 1464-1512
&1479 Friedrich V le Vieux von Hohenzollern, Markgraf von Ansbach 1460-1536
 
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  Anna Jagiellonka, Reine de Hongrie 1503-1547
&1526 Ferdinand I von Habsburg, Empereur Romain-Germanique 1503-1564
    Christina von Sachsen 1505-1549
&1523 Philipp I der Grossmütige, Landgraf von Hessen 1504-1567
    Magdalena von Sachsen 1507-1534
&1524 Joachim II Hector von Hohenzollern, Kurfürst von Brandenburg 1505-1571
    Albrecht von Hohenzollern, Herzog in Preußen 1490-1568
&1550 Anna Marie Welf 1532-1568
 
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  Karl II von Habsburg, Herzog von Steiemark 1540-1590
&1571 Maria von Wittelsbach, Prinzessin von Bayern 1551-1608
    Georg I der Fromme, Landgraf von Hessen-Darmstadt 1547-1596
&1572 Madeleine, Gräfin zur Lippe 1554/1552-1587
    Johann Georg l'Économe von Hohenzollern, Kurfürst von Brandenburg 1525-1598
&1577 Elisabeth von Anhalt, Prinzessin von Anhalt-Zerbst 1563-1607
    Albrecht Friedrich von Hohenzollern, Herzog in Preußen 1553-1618
&1573 Maria-Eleonora, Prinzessin von Kleve 1550-1608
 
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  Ferdinand II von Habsburg, Empereur Romain-Germanique 1578-1637
&1600 Maria-Anna von Wittelsbach, Prinzessin von Bayern 1574-1616
    Margarethe von Habsburg (Margarita de Austria), Reina de España 1584-1611
&1599 Felipe III El Piadoso von Habsburg, Rey de España 1578-1621
    Ludwig V, Landgraf von Hessen-Darmstadt 1577-1626     Magdalena von Hohenzollern, Markgräfin von Brandenburg 1582-1616     Joachim Ernst von Hohenzollern, Markgraf von Ansbach 1583-1625
&1612 Sophia, Gräfin zu Solms-Laubach 1594-1651
    Christian von Hohenzollern, Markgraf von Bayreuth 1581-1655     Marie von Hohenzollern 1579-1649      
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  Ferdinand III von Habsburg, Empereur Romain-Germanique 1608-1657     Maria-Anna von Habsburg, Infanta de España 1606-1646     Anne Eleonore, Prinzessin von Hessen-Darmstadt 1601-1659
&1617 Georg, Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg 1582-1641
    Sophie von Hohenzollern, Prinzessin von Brandenburg-Ansbach 1614-1646     Erdmann August von Hohenzollern, Markgraf von Bayreuth 1615-1651     Magdalena Sibylla von Hohenzollern, Prinzessin von Brandenburg-Bayreuth 1612-1687      
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  Leopold I von Habsburg, Empereur Romain-Germanique 1640-1705
&1676 Eleonora Magdalena, Pfalzgräfin von Pfalz-Neuburg 1655-1720
    Johann Friedrich von Braunschweig-Kalenberg, Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg 1625-1679
&1668 Bénédicte-Henriette, Pfalzgräfin von Simmern 1652-1730
    Christian Ernst von Hohenzollern, Markgraf von Brandenburg-Bayreuth 1644-1712
&1671 Sophia Luise, Herzogin von Württemberg 1642-1702
    Johann Georg III, Kurfürst von Sachsen 1647-1691
&1666 Anne-Sophie von Oldenburg, Prinsesse af Danmark 1647-1717
 
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  Joseph I von Habsburg, Empereur Romain-Germanique 1678-1711     Wilhelmina Amalia, Prinzessin von Braunschweig-Kalenberg 1673-1742     Christiane Eberhardine von Hohenzollern, Markgräfin von Brandenburg-Bayreuth 1671-1727     August II der Starke von Sachsen, König von Polen 1670-1733  
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  Maria-Josepha von Habsburg, Reine de Pologne 1699-1757     August III von Sachsen, Roi de Pologne 1696-1763  
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  Carl von Sachsen, Herzog von Kurland 1733-1796
&1760 Franciska Krasinski, Gräfin von Corvin-Krasinska 1742-1796
 
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  Maria Christina von Sachsen, Prinzessin von Sachsen-Kurland 1779-1851
&1810 Jules, Prince de Montléart 1787-1865
 
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  Auguste, Princesse de Montléart-Sachsen-Kurland 1814-1885
&1832 Karl-Kurt-Maria, Baron von Wernitz 1810-1871
 
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  Frédéric-Charles, Baron von Wernitz 1833-1902
&1856 Marie-Madeleine, Baronesse Petróczy de Petrócz 1835-1898
 
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  Jean-Nepomussene, Baron von Wernitz 1857-1930
&1886 Alexandra, Princesse Galitzine 1868-1954
 
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  Stephan Karl, Baron von Wernitz 1905-1981
&1937 Margarita zu Salm-Kyrburg, Princesse d'Hornes 1909-1995
 
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  Andreas von Wernitz zu Salm-Kyrburg, Herzog von Hornes 1944-
&1973 Elena Maria, Comtesse Teleki de Szék 1949-
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Andrés Carlos 1976-   Elena Alejandra 1977-   Gabriela Patricia 1981-

 

 

 
 

 

Andreas von Wernitz zu Salm-Kyrburg, Herzog von Hornes is also a descendant of the 18th generation of Gédymine, Grand Duke de Lithuanie.

Andreas von Wernitz zu Salm-Kyrburg, Herzog von Hornes is also a descendant of the 19th generation of Gédymine, Grand Duke de Lithuanie.

Andreas von Wernitz zu Salm-Kyrburg, Herzog von Hornes is also a descendant of the 20th generation of Gédymine, Grand Duke de Lithuanie.

Andreas von Wernitz zu Salm-Kyrburg, Herzog von Hornes is also a descendant of the 21st generation of Gédymine, Grand Duke de Lithuanie.

Andreas von Wernitz zu Salm-Kyrburg, Herzog von Hornes is also a descendant of the 22nd generation of Gédymine, Grand Duke de Lithuanie.

Andreas von Wernitz zu Salm-Kyrburg, Herzog von Hornes is also a descendant of the 23rd generation of Gédymine, Grand Duke de Lithuanie.

Andreas von Wernitz zu Salm-Kyrburg, Herzog von Hornes is also a descendant of the 24th generation of Gédymine, Grand Duke de Lithuanie.

Andreas von Wernitz zu Salm-Kyrburg, Herzog von Hornes is also a descendant of the 25th generation of Gédymine, Grand Duke de Lithuanie.

 

Ancestors of Andreas von Wernitz zu Salm-Kyrburg up to Gédymine de Lithuanie

 


Biography:

 

GEDYMIN (d. 1342), grand-duke of Lithuania, was supposed by the earlier chroniclers to have been the servant of Witen, prince of Lithuania, but more probably he was Witen's younger brother and the son of Lutuwer, another Lithuanian prince. Gedymin inherited a vast domain, comprising Lithuania proper, Samogitia, Red Russia, Polotsk and Minsk; but these possessions were environed by powerful and greedy foes, the most dangerous of them being the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian knights of the Sword. The systematic raiding of Lithuania by the knights under the pretext of converting it had long since united all the Lithuanian tribes against the common enemy; but Gedymin aimed at establishing a dynasty which should make Lithuania not merely secure but mighty, and for this purpose he entered into direct diplomatic negotiations with the Holy See. At the end of 1322 he sent letters to Pope John XXII. soliciting his protection against the persecution of the knights, informing him of the privileges already granted to the Dominicans and the Franciscans in Lithuania for the preaching of God's Word, and desiring that legates should be sent to receive him also into the bosom of the church. On receiving a favourable reply from the Holy See, Gedymin issued circular letters, dated 25th of January 1325, to the principal Hanse towns, offering a free access into his domains to men of every order and profession from nobles and knights to tillers of the soil. The immigrants were to choose their own settlements and be governed by their own laws. Priests and monks were also invited to come and build churches at Vilna and Novogrodek. Similar letters were sent to the Wendish or Baltic cities, and to the bishops and landowners of Livonia and Esthonia. In short Gedymin, recognizing the superiority of western civilization, anticipated Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great by throwing open the semi-savage Russian lands to influences of culture.

In October 13 23 representatives of the archbishop of Riga, the bishop of Dorpat, the king of Denmark, the Dominican and Franciscan orders, and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order assembled at Vilna, when Gedymin confirmed his promises and undertook to be baptized as soon as the papal legates arrived. A compact was then signed at Vilna, "in the name of the whole Christian World," between Gedymin and the delegates, confirming the promised privileges. But the christianizing of Lithuania was by no means to the liking of the Teutonic Knights, and they used every effort to nullify Gedymin's far-reaching design. This, unfortunately, it was easy to do. Gedymin's chief object was to save Lithuania from destruction at the hands of the Germans. But he was still a pagan reigning over semi-pagan lands; he was equally bound to his pagan kinsmen in Samogitia, to his orthodox subjects in Red Russia, and to his Catholic allies in Masovia. His policy, therefore, was necessarily tentative and ambiguous, and might very readily be misinterpreted. Thus his raid upon Dobrzyn, the latest acquisition of the knights on Polish soil, speedily gave them a ready weapon against him. The Prussian bishops, who were devoted to the knights, at a synod at Elbing questioned the authority of Gedymin's letters and denounced him as an enemy of the faith; his orthodox subjects reproached him with leaning towards the Latin heresy; while the pagan Lithuanians accused him of abandoning the ancient gods. Gedymin disentangled himself from his difficulties by repudiating his former promises; by refusing to receive the papal legates who arrived at Riga in September 1323; and by dismissing the Franciscans from his territories. These apparently retrogressive measures simply amounted to a statesmanlike recognition of the fact that the pagan element was still the strongest force in Lithuania, and could not yet be dispensed with in the coming struggle for nationality. At the same time Gedymin through his ambassadors privately informed the papal legates at Riga that his difficult position compelled him for a time to postpone his steadfast resolve of being baptized, and the legates showed their confidence in him by forbidding the neighbouring states to war against Lithuania for the next four years, besides ratifying the treaty made between Gedymin and the archbishop of Riga. Nevertheless in 1325 the Order, disregarding the censures of the church, resumed the war with Gedymin, who had in the meantime improved his position by an alliance with Wladislaus Lokietek, king of Poland, whose son Casimir now married Gedymin's daughter Aldona.

While on his guard against his northern foes, Gedymin from 1316 to 1340 was aggrandizing himself at the expense of the numerous Russian principalities in the south and east, whose incessant conflicts with each other wrought the ruin of them all. Here Gedymin's triumphal progress was irresistible; but the various stages of it are impossible to follow, the sources of its history being few and conflicting, and the date of every salient event exceedingly doubtful. One of his most important territorial accretions, the principality of Halicz-Vladimir, was obtained by the marriage of his son Lubart with the daughter of the Haliczian prince; the other, Kiev, apparently by conquest. Gedymin also secured an alliance with the grand-duchy of Muscovy by marrying his daughter, Anastasia, to the grandduke Simeon. But he was strong enough to counterpoise the influence of Muscovy in northern Russia, and assisted the republic of Pskov, which acknowledged his overlordship, to break away from Great Novgorod. His internal administration bears all the marks of a wise ruler. He protected the Catholic as well as the orthodox clergy, encouraging them both to civilize his subjects; he raised the Lithuanian army to the highest state of efficiency then attainable; defended his borders with a chain of strong fortresses; and built numerous towns including Vilna, the capital (c. 1321). Gedymin died in the winter of 1342 of a wound received at the siege of Wielowa. He was married three times, and left seven sons and six daughters.

Lithuania

(German Litauen)

An ancient grandy-duchy united with Poland in the fourteenth century.

The Lithuanians belong to the Indo-Germanic family, of which they form with the Letts and the extinct Borussians (Old Prussians) the Balto-Slavonic group. Within the Russian Empire they dwell principally in the governmental districts of Kovno, Grodno, Tchernigoff, and, in smaller numbers, in some few districts of Russian Poland (total in 1897: 1,658,542, or, including the Letts, 3,094,469). In Germany they are found in the northern part of East Prussia and in West Prussia (total about 110,000). Concerning their early history, even today little reliable information is available. In the twelfth century of our era, we find them divided into various clans and taking part in the wars between the princes of Polozk, Novgorod, Tchernigoff, etc., now as allies of the princes and again as enemies. From the end of the twelfth century they were engaged in constant warfare with the Order of the Brethren of the Sword, who were extending their conquests along the coast of the Baltic into Livonia. The Lithuanians were divided politically into numerous principalities, mostly hereditary, and to a great extent independent of one another.

The credit of having united them belongs to Prince Mendog (or Mindowe), who, towards the middle of the thirteenth century, succeeded in compelling the lesser princes to recognize his supremacy. With a view to strengthening his position against external enemies, especially the Teutonic Order, Mindowe and his wife sought baptism in 1250 or 1251, and received from Innocent IV the royal crown, with which he was crowned by the Bishop of Kulm, in 1252 (1253) in presence of the Master of the Teutonic Order. As Mindowe desired a special diocese for his territories, one Christian, a member of the Teutonic Order, was by order of the pope consecrated Bishop of Lithuania by Archbishop Albert of Riga. Notwithstanding Albert's efforts to secure this new diocese as suffragan of his see, it was made directly dependent on Rome. Of Christian's activity in Lithuania little is known. At this period, however, Christianity acquired no firm footing in Lithuania proper; it was embraced only by Mindowe and his immediate friends, and by them purely for political reasons, and it was also with an eye to political interest that they reverted to paganism about 1262. As Christian was coadjutor Bishop of Mainz as early as 1259, he cannot have long occupied the See of Lithuania; his successor, John, also a member of the Teutonic Order, also appears as coadjutor Bishop of Constance. The murder of Mindowe by his nephew Traniate was followed by great political confusion and a complete relapse into paganism. In the Russian territories, however, which were then and later known as Lithuanian, Christianity was retained under the Greek Orthodox form, these regions having been evangelized from Byzantium.

The first step towards the restoration of Lithuanina power was taken by Gedymin (archduke from 1316), when he introduced German colonists into his territories, and founded numerous cities and towns, granting them the privileges customary in Germany. The most important of these cities was Wilna, afterwards the capital of Lithuania. Gedymin succeeded in extending his kingdom to the east by successful battles with the Tatars, who had then made themselves masters of Russia. From 1336 he was involved in war with the Teutonic Order, and was slain while besieging Welona, one of their fortresses, in 1340 or 1341. Two of his sons, Olgerd and Keistut, successfully defended the independence of their kingdom against the order, while pushing their conquests further into Russia. Vigorous champions of paganism, they opposed the entrance of Christianity within their frontiers, although Gedymin, while himself remaining a heathen, had granted entire freedom to the Christian religion. Thus, the Franciscan and Dominican monasteries founded at Wilna under Gedymin were suppressed by his sons. Olderd (d. 1377) was succeeded by his son Jagello, who made overtures to the Teutonic Order and concluded a secret treaty with it. Jagello, however, awakened the suspicions of his uncle, Keistut, who took up arms, surprised him at Wilna, and made him prisoner for a time. In the ensuing civil war, Keistut allowed himself to be enticed into Jagello's camp under pledge of personal safety, but on his arrival there he was at once seized, thrown into prison, and eventually put to death (1382).

In 1384, upon the death of Louis I of Hungary and Poland, the Polish nobles, having crowned his daughter Hedwig, decided that as the new queen was but fifteen years old, she must be provided with a consort capable of protecting her dominions. Their choice fell upon Jagello of Lithuania, whose hostility to the Teutonic Order made him their natural ally. Moreover, the Catholic Church in Poland saw in this union the promise of glorious missionary activity in a land still for the most part pagan. The Franciscan provincial, Kmita, who enjoyed Jagello's confidence, was one of the foremost advocates of union between the kingdoms. Jagello, after formally suing for the queen's hand, promised to embrace the Catholic Faith, with his borthers and all his subjects, to unite his Lithuanian and Russian lands forever with the Polish Crown, to recover at his own expense the territory taken from Poland, and to pay Duke William of Austria, who had been promised Hedwig's hand, and indemnity of 200,000 gulden. Hedwig at length consented to the match. Jagello was baptized on 15 Feb., 1386, taking the name Wladislaw, and on 4 March he was married to Hedwig and crowned King Consort and Regent of Poland.

As the result of this union between Lithuania and Poland, a mighty Christian kingdom arose in Eastern Europe. Lithuania itself, three times as large as Poland, but far below it in culture, ceased to be independent, but it was now for the first time brought into immediate contact with Western civilization. In 1387 Jagello returned to his home, accompanied by missionaries. He won the good will of the nobles (boyars) for Christianity by granting them, on 20 February, the same liberties as were then enjoyed by the Catholic nobles in Poland. A see was established at Wilna, and Vasylo, a Polish Franciscan, appointed its first bishop. The Russian portions of Lithuania (Kiev, Tchernigoff, etc.) remained Greek Orthodox, but the Samoghitians continued for some time longer to be pagans. To strengthen the internal union between the peoples, Polish law was conceded only to the Catholic Lithuanians in the Constitution of 1387, and marriage with the Green Orthodox was forbidden. At first the relation between Lithuania and Poland was simply a personal union. Jagello retained for himself the princely dignity, but appointed a governor for Lithuania — first his brother Skirgjello and then, from 1392 to 1430, his cousin Witold. His endeavour to maintain this relation of independence towards the Polish Crown was rendered abortive by his defeat at the hands of the Tatars in 1399, which compelled him to enter into closer relations with the Poles. In 1401 the political union of the kingdoms took place; Lithuania was to be independent as long as Witold lived, but was then to be annexed to the Crown of Poland; Witold and the boyars took the oath of allegiance, and the Polish nobility promised to support the Lithuanians, and, after Jagello's death, to elect no king without first consulting them.

Besides their common warfare against the Teutonic Order, the fusion of the two peoples was furthered by the Assembly of Horodlo on the Bug, in 1413, at which the earlier union was renewed, and a large number of the Lithuanian boyars were admitted into the Polish nobility, receiving identical privileges. Furthermore, both the Polish and the Lithuanian nobility received from the king the right of convoking assemblies and parliaments in the interests of the kingdom with the permission of the prince. For the Lithuanians, whose government had previously been absolute, this right meant a constitution — even though oligarchical — by means of which they could readily make their influence felt in the affairs of the nation. But the division between Catholics and Greek Orthodox in the Little Russian districts still continued. To heal this, Witold laboured for ecclesiastical union between the two sections of the people. In 1415 he summoned an Orthodox synod at Nowohorodok, which declared the Lithuanian Orthodox Church, with its metropolitan of Kiev, independent of the Patriarch of Moscow. In 1418 he sent Gregory Camblak (or Cemiwlak), Metropolitan of Kiev, with eighteen suffragan bishops, to the Council of Constance to conclude a union with Rome, and to secure, in return for their recognition of papal supremacy, the retention of the Slavic Liturgy and Rite. The mission failed, however, nor were the negotiations at the Council of Florence in 1439 more successful. It was, indeed, only about 150 years later, at the Synod of Brest-Litovsk (1595-96), that the union of the Little Russian, or Ruthenian, Church with Rome was accomplished (see UNION OF BREST).

Religious divisions and the establishment of Polish garrisons in Lithuania, created a state of feeling which, after Witold's death, manifested itself in repeated rebellions. The union was formally dissolved when, on the death of Casimir IV, in 1492, the Lithuanians chose his fourth son, Alexander, as their grand-duke, and the Poles elected his third son, John Albert, their king. Only the war against the Teutonic Order, in 1499, brought the two peoples together once more. Even after the death of Alexander, in 1501, there still remained a powerful party in favour of independence; these found support in Russia, which, from the time of Ivan III (1462-1505), had been growing in power. The threatened separation, however, and the daily increasing evidence that Russia was to be the chief rival of Poland in Eastern Europe, led to a reaction among the Poles. They recognized the urgent necessity of exchanging a deceptive union for a genuine unity of the whole Polish Empire. Four previous diets having vainly sought a solution of the problem, that assembled at Lublin in 1569 at last affected the Union of Lublin. The union was proclaimed in July of the same year, and confirmed on oath by both parties. Henceforth, Poles and Lithuanians formed one kingdom, with one king elected in common, with a common diet, a common mint, etc.; of its earlier independence, Lithuania retained its own administration, its own finances, and its own army. Thereafter, Lithuania shared the fate of Poland, although in 1648 one section of the Lithuanians of Little Russia — the Ukraine — separated from Poland and, in 1654, made their submission to the Tsar of Russia. The various partitions of Poland resulted in the larger portion of Lithuania being ceded to Russia, the smaller to Prussia.

 


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